Cave and Karst Science Logo

Volume 29(3), 2002

BCRA > Publications > Cave & Karst Science> Contents

Scroll down for Editorial | Papers | Reports | Forum | Thesis Abstracts

Front cover
  • Dating calcite shelfstones, Ghar Alisadr, Iran
  • Energy replenishers in cave exploration
  • Roosky Turlough, Northern Ireland
  • Cover-collapse sinkholes, Turkey
  • Aquatic mollusca in water pipes
  • Calcite moonmilk in Romania
  • The Slaughter Rising, UK
  • Forum

Cover photo by Jeff Cowling during the Craven Pothole Club winch meet, August 2002: Gaping Gill Main Chamber and the base of Gaping Gill's Main and Lateral shafts, viewed from the far west slope. The depth of the Main Shaft, first descended by Edouard Alfred Martel in 1895 (see Cave and Karst Science 26(1)) is the subject of ongoing discussion in this Issue's Forum.


(Gunn, J. & D. Lowe (eds))
Vol 29 (3) pp 99 - 100
The policy of Cave and Karst Science to provide a means for amateur scientists to gain experience and confidence by publishing their results and ideas in a wide-circulation scientific journal is reiterated. In this context material can be published that would normally remain unpublished, or relegated to relative obscurity among club journals or newsletters. Many examples can be quoted from the past of crucial, well-observed data and related ideas and discussions being effectively hidden in this way, and subsequently being left undeveloped, unappreciated, unreferenced and leap-frogged by other scientists' work. Publication in Cave and Karst Science is of two types, the conventional Paper, and the more controversial Report in which new data and tangential ideas are aired. For example, in the 1940s Max Planck remarked that "a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it." Also in 1900 Lord Kelvin remarked that only two "clouds" remained on the horizon, preventing FULL UNDERSTANDING of the laws of physics. His opinion was that the "clouds" (the full understanding of black body radiation, and the anomalous results of the Michelson-Morley experiment) would soon be lifted, leaving no further need for physical research! In fact, the first led to Planck's quantum theory, and the second to Einstein's theories of relativity, both crucial to further research into atomic theory.

The following are thanked for their work in refereeing papers and reports:
Simon Bottrell
Colin Braithwaite
Andrew Chamberlain
Helen Goldie
Chris Hunt
Clive Hunt
Alexander Klimchouk
Stei-Erik Lauritzen
Margaret Marker
Graham Proudlove
Peter Styles
Tony Waltham
Paul Wood
& Chas Yonge.


(Chirienco, M.)
Calcite moonmilk in the Humpleu Cave system (Romania):
the relationship between crystal morphology and cave topoclimate

Vol 29 (3) pp 101 - 104
Abstract: Calcite moonmilk is a common deposit throughout the passages of the Humpleu Cave system. The moonmilk deposits are in the form of massive flowstones, delicate draperies and patches of mould-like accumulations. Except for one sample (secondary in origin), all were prepicitated directly from low-supersaturated, calcium-rich solutions. Scanning electron microscope observations reveal that the deposit consists of nanofibres, acicular microfibres, rhomb chains, and calcified filaments. These morphologies seem to have developed under specific topoclimatic cave conditions and at variable rates of dripping and CO2 outgassing. Microbial activity apparently played an active role in the formation of some of the moonmilk.
(Kelly, J.G., I. Enlander, A.M. Kelly & T. Fogg)
The geological setting, hydrology and ecology of Roosky Turlough, Ely, Co. Fermanagh, Northern Ireland
Vol 29 (3) pp 105 - 110
Introduction: Turloughs (from the Irish tuar lough - dry lake) are ephemeral lakes whose presence or absence is controlled by fluctuations in ground water levels. They are well known from the southwest and central Irish Republic, and are particularly well developed in northern Co. Clare, east Co. Galway and Co. Roscommon. Fogg and Kelly (1995) identified three small loughs at Ely, Co. Fermanagh, that can be defined as turloughs, the only examples recorded in Northern Ireland to date. Roosky Lough is the southernmost, Green Lough lies to the north, with Fardrum Lough between the two. They are among the most northerly of these lake types in Ireland and represent 3 out of 4 turloughs recognised within the UK, the other being Pant y Llyn in South Wales. The lakes flood in winter, or after periods of low rainfall and/or high evaporation/transpiration, especially during summer and early autumn. The conservation importance of the turloughs is reflected in their being designated an Area of Special Scientific Interest under Northern Ireland's conservation legislation and being selected as candidate Special Areas of Conservation under the European Community's Habitats Directive.
(Dogan, U. & I. Cicek)
Occurrence of cover-collapse sinkholes [cover-collapse dolines] in the May Dam reservoir area (Konya, Turkey)
Vol 29 (3) pp 111 - 116
Abstract: May Dam provides a typical example of the problems that may be associated with dams constructed in karstic regions and the associated development of subsurface karstic features beneath a reservoir. Following construction of the May Dam in 1960 there were immediate leakage problems. The reservoir behind the dam is within a heavily fractured karstic region and water leakage via fractures in the limestone floor constitutes 67% of the total water entering the reservoir. Water leaks led to the washout of unconsolidated material from underlying conduits and the formation of voids in alluvial cover. Frequent fluctuations of the levels of the reservoir and the water table cause enlargement of soil voids and formation of cover-collapse sinkholes. In February 2002, when the reservoir level was at its maximum, three large collapse sinkholes formed in the reservoir floor. These sinkholes and other sinkholes that might form in the future pose a major threat to the stability of the local environment and the dam.


(Bregani, E.R.)
Energy replenishers in speleological practice:
creatine and brached-chain amino acids.
A scientifically controlled trial

Vol 29 (3) pp 117 - 122
Summary: A scientifically controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effects of energy replenishers with creatine and branched-chain amino acids upon caving perfomances. Following treatment with creatine and branched-chain amino acids or with placebos, ten healthy cavers carried out a caving trip. Subsequently the same group performed the same exercise, but with the treatments inverted. Anaerobic and aerobic effort seemed to be improved by creatine administration, with a reduction of times for individual activities and a reduction of fatigue. Whereas it is acknowledged that most of the underlying observations do not yet have statistical significance, the analysis of all the data suggests an improvement of all parameters in the treated subjects. Laboratory data relating to muscular stress indicate significant minor muscular damage in the treated subjects. This might be explained as a side effect of the creatine and branched-chain amino acids.
(Moseley, M.)
Early British reports of aquatic mollusca living in underground water pipes
Vol 29 (3) pp 123 - 124
Abstract: Early records of aquatic mollusca (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Ancylus fluviatilis and Dressensia polymorpha) found in underground water pipes in England are reviewed and discussed. It is possible that, if searched for, these species will be found in natural caves.
(Lowe, D.J.)
Stratigraphicaly-guided drainage in the Slaughter catchment, Forest of Dean, UK:
an interim report

Vol 29 (3) pp 125 - 128
Abstract: Lying in the northwest of the Forest of Dean, UK, the Slaughter Rising is a major resurgence, fed by a web of allogenic inputs and background autogenic drainage east of the River Wye. The conduit system "behind" the Slaughter Rising is of fundamental importance to the modern underground drainage of a wide area. Relationships between this system and local geology, and between the system and four other (lesser) resurgences are less obvious. Based upon a broad knowledge of the geology, the confirmed drainage connections and the known cave passages, a conceptual model of one possible set of relationships between geology and underground drainage is suggested.
(Kaufmann, G.)
Ghar Alisadr, Hamadan, Iran:
first results on dating calcite shelfstones

Vol 29 (3) pp 129 - 133
Abstract: Several fossil calcite shelfstones above the present water-table in Ghar Alisadr (Alisadr cave), Iran, indicate a more humid climatic episode. Climatic conditions must have at least provided 600mm/yr palaeo-recharge, which is twice the amount the region receives today. The location of the calcite shelfstones above the water-table can be explained, if the aquifer has a fairly low transmissivity, which is untypical for mature karst aquifers. The cave-bearing limestone layer therefore seems to be thin and is partially blocked towards the resurgences, otherwise an increase of more than two metres in water-table cannot be satisfactorily explained.


Correspondence: Forder, J., The depth of Gaping Gill main shaft: Gaping Gill: Depth of Main Shaft (Craven, S.A.)
Vol 29 (3) p 135
Correspondence: Forder, J., The depth of Gaping Gill main shaft: The true depth of Gaping Gill (Cordingley, J.)
Vol 29 (3) p 136
Correspondence: Hromnik, C.A., The meaning of kras: How the Dravids(ians) and "Pre-Slovenes" lived together in the caves of Kras and drank Teran thousands of years ago - not to mention other curiosities (Kranjc, A., A. Pleterski & M. Snoj)
Vol 29 (3) pp 136 - 138
Correspondence: Hromnik, C.A., The meaning of kras: Karst: Methodology of Acadmic Mediocrity (MAM) sheds little light on the dark karstic underground, with Corrigenda to the previous article (Hromnik, C.A.)
Vol 29 (3) pp 138 - 142

Thesis Abstracts

Gibson, A.D. 2003
Channel Characterisation and System Design for Sub-Surface Communications

PhD thesis, Institute of Integrated Information Systems, School of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Vol 29 (3) p 143
Gao, Y. 2002
Karst feature distribution in southeastern Minnesota:
Extending GIS-based database for spatial analysis and resource management

PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, USA
Vol 29 (3) p 143
Hunter, C. 2003
Electrical imaging and characterisation of gypsum dissolution related depressions at High Common Farm, Ripon, North Yorkshire

BSc(Hons) Geophysical Sciences, School of Earth Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
Vol 29 (3) p 143


Kuniansky, E.L. (ed.) 2002
U.S. Geological Ssurvey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, August 20 - 22, 2002

(Bednar, D.M. Jr)
Vol 29 (3) p 144

This page created by Dr John D. Wilcock

button Top of Page